Insulin Growth Factors

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Insulin growth factors are the proteins that have sequence similarities to insulin. They are used to allow cells to communicate with the physiologic environment, a system commonly referred to as the IGF axis. In most animals, this hormone is secreted by the liver when it is stimulated.

If insulin growth factors are not secreted properly in animals, it can lead to a variety of diseases including cancers. When the hormone is functioning properly, it can stimulate proliferation of cells while inhibiting cell death.

The effects vary throughout the animal body because many different tissues will be affected by insulin growth factors. At high concentrations this chemical can activate insulin receptors to compliment the natural effects of insulin.

Insulin Growth Factors

Diseases that May affect Insulin Growth Factors in the Body

Recent studies imply that the healthy presence of insulin growth factors in the body of animals may have an important role in the aging process.

  • Studies using fruit flies and nematodes were used to determine how a life span could be increased when the gene that was the equivalent of what would produce insulin in mammals was knocked out.
  • These results were somewhat inconclusive as the studies focused on small organisms which had several genes that would mimic those of insulin growth factors in mammals.
  • These results were further complicated because mammals typically have a specific organ designated for the creation of insulin while other organisms did not.

While study results were inconclusive, these examinations determined that the absence of insulin growth factors could perturb aging. It is also shown that restricting the diet, which would impact insulin us,e would impact this status.

Effects on RNA Expression in Middle-Aged Rats

The activity of insulin-like receptors DAF-2 and reproductive growth was monitored during the adult life span of rats to better understand how insulin growth factors functioned in mammals.

  • Analysis revealed that 37 C. genes could be used to predict and incode insulin-like peptides. Many of these insulin genes are within the same superfamily and were clustered–which indicates that the diversification of this family is fairly recent.
  • These genes are largely expressed in neurons such as sensory neurons which are required for reproductive development. The predictions of these structures at cleavage sites indicate that the insulin receptors ins-1 are more closely related to insulin in mammals than they are in other animals.
  • In these types of animals, this implies that the penetrant arrest of these chemicals at the dauer state can enhance the weak daf-2 mutants, which implies that ins-s can be used to antagonize these receptors to signal inulin.

The coding regions for these genes implies that there is a redundancy as only one other ins gene can be used as a predicted C peptide for signaling das-2, but four of the genes do not. This indicated that there is still functional diversity within this gene family.

The specific effects of insulin growth factors in a variety of animals and how isolating or eliminating genes within these animals is expanding the understanding of how these chemicals function. However, additional study is necessary to determine how these methods could be applied to mammals.

Source:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9483550

 

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Ipamorelin And Bone Mineral Content

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buy ipamorelinIpamorelin is a chemical name that refers to CJC-1295. There are a number of cells that can be affected by this chemical which typically results in large secretions of hormones in animals when it is applied.

In studies, ipamorelin is commonly used in research environments, because it is more stable than comparable chemicals such as sermorelin. In some cases, this chemical has been used on animals to study potential uses as a melanotan injection.

This version of the chemical binds with the melanocortin receptors in an animal’s skin which could increase inflammation, energy, pigmentation of the skin, sexual function or appetite. Studies of the usefulness or application of these effects in a natural setting are ongoing.

Uses in Increasing Bone Mineral Content

Female rats were used in a recent experiment to showcase the vitality of hormones in normal bone remodeling.

  • The study indicated that increasing a certain class of hormone secretagogues would in turn increase the concentrations of biochemical markers that were necessary for the formation of bone. The goal was to determine whether chemicals such as GHRP-6 or ipamorelin could potentially be used to improve bone mineral content in these rats.
  • Female rats 13 weeks old were exposed to either chemical via osmotic minipumps for a total of 12 weeks. They were then monitored with dual X-ray absorptiometry every four weeks.
  • After the study was completed, the rats were killed to examine the femurs via vitro mid-diaphyseal pQCT scans. The femurs and vertebrae L6 to determine the ash weights.

All applied chemicals were found to increase the body weight of rats and the vertebral and tibial BMC compared to those with vehicle-treated control settings. The pQCT measurements revealed that the cortical BMC increased in the cross-sectional bone area while the cortical volumetric BMD did not change.

Efficacy in Rodent Model Postoperative Ileus

Studies have attempted to investigate whether or not ipamorelin could accelerate the gastrointestinal transit or ameliorate symptoms in a rodent postoperative ileus.

  • Male rats were fasted and then given an intestinal manipulation and laparotomy. After the surgery, dye markers were applied to the proximal colon to better evaluate postsurgical colonic transit time or the time it took to reach the first bowel movement.
  • The food intake, body weight and pellet output were also regularly monitored throughout the course of the study.
  • The rats were either exposed to GHRP-6, a saline vehicle or ipamorelin via intravenous bolus infusion either in one or two doses per day.

This study indicated that ipamorelin would decrease the time of the first bowel movement, but would have no effect on the body weight of the rat, cumulative fecal output or food intake.

However, repeated doses of ipamorelin had a significant impact on the cumulative body weight gain, pellet output and food intake in the rats, implying that applying ipamorelin in postsurgical settings could help to ameliorate symptoms in those with POI.

Versions of ipamorelin used for increasing the secretions of hormones, versus those used to increase the reaction of melanocrotin receptors, have a small variance in amino acid structures.

Sources:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10828840

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19289567


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Buy AICAR: Mechanisms of the Chemical

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AICAR is capable of both inhibiting and stimulating a variety of proteins which offers a variety of applications in natural environments. The research of AICAR is also attempting to determine the specific pathways that these synthesis inhibitors travel to better understand how the chemical would behave when introduced to a natural environment.

To date these experiments have been performed on rats which somewhat limit the available data, though ongoing experiments are making more data available.

Mechanisms of the Chemical

AICAR stimulates AMP-dependent protein kinase that was first produced in the 1980s.

  • When applied, AICAR enhances the rate of re-synthesis of nucleotide which will in turn increase the adenosine from adenosine monophosphate conditions in the myocardial ischemia.
  • AICAR is typically used to stimulate protein kinase in a natural environment. The effects of this stimulation appear to be dependent on the amount of the chemical that has been applied to the given environment.
  • Studies are currently investigating the impacts of AICAR on glucose.

In studies performed on rats, cyanide-stimulated glucose was controlled by this process, though the necessary applications to control basal insulin-glucose uptake has not yet been discovered in laboratory settings.

Uses and Research

Research has led to the belief that AICAR could be used as an inhibitor that can affect adenosine deaminase and adenosine kinase.

  • Research is currently investigating the potential benefits of using AICAR to control kinase activity in skeletal muscles. Studies in the skeletal tissues of rats currently imply that AICAR can control these processes without activating additional kinetic processes.
  • Because the effects of AICAR are largely concentrated, it may be able to reduce inflammation from triggers such as nitric oxide synthase. This includes circumstances where AICAR was applied to multiple areas of skeletal tissue in the given test subject simultaneously. Data on how these chemicals may interact with tissues other than those of rats is not presently available.

Much of the research surrounding the potential effects of AICAR is performed in order to compare the effects of this chemical compared to AMPK or adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase. This natural enzyme made from three proteins is key to providing cells with energy homeostasis. Presently, AICAR is not able to fully control kinases stimulated by natural AMPK in laboratory settings.

Much of the function of AICAR and its interaction with exposed tissues is dependent on the hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) that is in the area where the chemical has been applied, stimulating a variety of kinase processes based on the needs of the natural environment in a given circumstance.

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