Peptide Efficiency

Accurate research is very important to us, so we thought we would do a short review on some of the peptide tips we have recently posted. We hope that these simple guidelines will help perfect your peptide research!

Tip: Opening your peptides when they arrive

Prior to opening the vial containing the peptide, it is best to equilibrate the material to room temperature in a desiccator. Failure to warm the peptides can cause condensation to form on the product upon opening the bottle, reducing stability.


Tip: How to weigh peptides

When weighing out a quantity of peptide, warm the package as noted above and perform the measurement as quickly as possible. Store all unused peptide at 0°C or less. Sequences containing cysteine, methionine, tryptophan, asparagine, glutamine, or N-terminal glutamic acid will have shorter shelf lives than other peptides.


Tip: Peptide storage guidelines

Lyophilized peptides should be stored in a sealed container with desiccant at -20°C (at least 0°C) in order to minimize peptide degradation. The peptide can be stored for several years under these conditions, which also prevent bacterial degradation, secondary structure formation, and oxidation. Short periods of elevated temperatures (less than 45 days) will not damage the peptide. Always keep away from sunlight.


PDF View/Download

What is GHRP–2?

GHRP – 2 is a non-glycosylated secretogogue peptide that is occasionally known by the names KP-102 or GHRP.  It contains a molecular mass of 817.9 and its molecular formula is C45H55N9O6.  Its structure is comprised of six amino acids, thus enabling it to have the classification of a hexipeptide.

GHRP – 2 and the Pituitary Gland

It has been deGHRP-2 5mgtermined through scientific study on animal test subjects that GHRP – 2’s functional mechanics can be linked to the pituitary gland; the pea-shaped gland that is located at the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain.  In essence, this gland acts as the primary base of regulation and control of a host of endocrine system-related processes, ranging from growth and metabolism to pain relief and temperature regulation.

In essence, GHRP – 2’s functionality enables a boosted level of pituitary gland secretions to occur, thus leading an animal test subject to experience a greater level of homeostasis.  The reason that it can accomplish this feat is because it can prevent the secretion of a peptide known as somatostatin; a secretion that essentially regulates the endocrine system and all of its regulatory functions.  Further studies have also demonstrated that it can also increase the levels of calcium ion influx, which can in turn stimulate an increased level of growth-related secretions.

GHRP – 2 and the Stomach

Additional scientific study that has been conducted on animal test subjects has also determined that GHRP – 2’s overall functional process has a definitive link to the liver.  Specifically, it has a link to the secretion of an enzyme called ghrelin.  In essence, gherlin is expressed by the stomach as a means to create the sensation of hunger in an animal test subject.  Its expression also acts to counter the effects of leptin; a secretion whose expression triggers the sensation of feeling full.  Studies have shown that GHRP – 2 contains the ability to elevate the production of ghrelin, thus causing an animal test subject to experience the sensation of feeling hungry for a longer interval of time.  This then creates a desire to consume a larger intake of food.  This boosted level of food can in turn be converted to the fuel that is needed for the elevated effects that are linked to the boosted stimulation of the pituitary gland.

GHRP – 2 and the Liver

Further studies that have been based on animal test subjects have determined that GHRP – 2 also has a link to functions relating to the liver.  Specifically, it has been shown to boost the production of a peptide known as Insulin-like Growth Factor-1, also known as IGF-1.

How these Functions Tie Together

GHRP – 2’s functionality as it relates to the pituitary gland, stomach, and liver has caused scientific study based on animal test subjects to determine that these interactions can combine to create various endocrine system-related process elevations.  Some of these elevations include:

  • An enhanced experience in muscle growth – Because GHRP – 2 has been shown to create a boosted level of pituitary gland stimulation and an increased amount of IGF-1 secretion, scientific study based on animal test subjects has determined that it has the ability to allow an animal test subject to experience a more efficient means of experiencing a boost in muscle size and muscle mass.
  • A more efficient means of weight loss – Even though GHRP – 2 has been shown to increase levels of ghrelin and therefore boost the desire to consume more food in animal test subjects, the other processes that have been related to it enable the subject to experience a significantly increased level of liposyis; that is, the process in which fatty acids can get broken down.  This elevated process eventually means that the animal test subject can burn through body fat at a much faster rate.
  • Improved anti-inflammatory processes – Scientific study conducted on animal test subjects has determined that GHRP – 2’ functionality with the pituitary gland can potentially lessen instances of negative reaction that a subject may have to damaged cells, irritants, and other assorted pathogens.

It needs to be noted that all of the research that has been conducted relating to GHRP – 2 has been solely built around the scientific study based on animal test subjects.  Therefore, any findings or observations that relate to GHRP – 2’s overall functionality, mechanics, or theoretical benefits, should only be contained to the strict confines of a controlled environment such as a medical research facility or a laboratory.

PDF View/Download

What is Fragment 176-191?

Fragment 176-191 is a peptide that is a modified version of amino acids 176-191.  Its molecular formula is C78H125N23O23S2, and its molecular mass is 1817.12.  It is occasionally referred to by alternate names, such as:

  • Frag 176-191
  • Cytoplamsmic Protein 9.5
  • Gracile Axonal Dystrophy

It has been shown to stimulate lipolysis, slow the process of lipogenesis, and exhibit antibiotic tendencies that are consistent with antigen binders.

Fragment 176-191 5mgHow Fragment 176-191 Functions

According to scientific study that has been conducted on animal test subjects, Fragment 176-191 functions by essentially mimicking the secretions that essentially control fat metabolism.  However, the peptide has been shown to do so without creating the adverse affects that may otherwise happen in relation to blood sugar or cell proliferation.  Because it can seize regulatory control of fat metabolism, it has been shown that it promotes the breaking down of body fat, promotes energy expulsion, boosts fat oxidation, and even elevates muscle mass.

Why Fragment 176-191 Functions

Scientific study based on animal test subjects has determined that Fragment 176-191 can function in this manner because it has an interactive relationship with the cytoplasm and the endoplasmic reticulum membrane that can be found within each cellular unit in an animal test subject.  Fragment 176-191 works in conjunction with these two components to stimulate the ubiquitin-protein hydrolase involved in processing ubiquitinated proteins and ubiquitin antecedents.  This enzyme will in turn mark the peptide bond at the glycene C-terminal of ubiquitin.  Also, the peptide may bond to an unfettered monobiquitin in order to inhibit the degradation of lysosomes; the cell organelle that is chiefly responsible for breaking down waste materials and other cellular debris.

What These Processes Mean

Scientific study that has been based on animal test subjects has shown that Fragment 176-191 can be hypothetically linked to a host of different benefits.

  • The first hypothetical benefit that has been linked relates to the process of lipolysis; that is, the breakdown of adipose tissue, also known as body fat.
  • According to scientific study that has been built on animal test subjects, it has been determined that the presence of the peptide can allow for a rate of lipolysis to occur 12.5 times stronger than the rate when the peptide is not present.
  • This then leads to a significantly more efficient rate of fat burning.
  • Furthermore, it was determined that Fragment 176-191’s elevated process of lipolysis was not associated with any negative side effects, which sets the peptide apart from other peptides that have been shown to function in a similar manner.

Another benefit that has been theorized relates to Fragment 176-191’s association with brain membranes.  Specifically, scientific study based on animal test subjects has derived the notion that the presence of the peptide can play a key role in the treatment or even the prevention of Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease.  The reason for this concept is due to the fact that the neuroendocrine systems of those that suffer from Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s have been shown to have down-regulated versions of Fragment 176-191.  Thus far, it has been thought that the presence of Fragment 176-191 may act to offset the toxicity of the protein malfunctions that have been shown to promote the onset of Alzheimer’s.  Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that the presence of the peptide may be able to prevent the type of basal lesion that have been shown to contribute to the onset of Parkinson’s disease.

Insulin’s Reaction to Fragment 176-191

Scientific study that has been conducted on animal test subjects has also determined that there may be a link in the way in which Fragment 176-191 functions and the pancreas-secreted peptide insulin.  These particular studies have indicated that the presence of the peptide have increased the levels of blood glucose in animal test subjects over a short period of time, and it allowed an animal test subject to experience a longer lasting increase of insulin levels in their plasma.  These particular findings allowed researchers to show how amino acids work together in order to improve insulin travel regulation as a means to achieve a certain level of homeostasis.  What’s more, these studies on insulin demonstrated that a peptide like Fragment 176-191, which is determined to be bioactive in nature, can remain fully operational with a minimum of the proper informational sequence.

PDF View/Download