ACVR2B – Part 2

ACVR2B and Inuslin

It has also been theorized that ACVR2B’s ability to improve glucose metabolism can also reduce an animal test subject’s level of insulin sensitivity.  As such, some scientific studies on animal test subjects have been geared toward finding ways to link the peptide with a lower level of insulin resistance.

ACVR2B and Muscular Dystrophy

The biggest amount of scientific study based on animal test subjects in conjunction to ACVR2B is the relationship between the peptide and how it could conceivably combat the scourge of muscular dystrophy.

The term muscular dystrophy is an umbrella term describing a group of muscular diseases that weaken the musculoskeletal system and ultimately slows down motion.  It is chiefly characterized by progressive weakness in the skeletal muscle, defects in muscle proteins, and the death of muscle tissue and muscle cells.  Most types of the condition are multi-symptom disorders that appear in body systems such as the heart, nervous system, endocrine glands, gastrointestinal system, brain, and eyes.

The main scientific focus on ACVR2B’s conceptual ability to combat muscular dystrophy stems around a specific form of the disease called Duchenne muscular dystrophy.  Almost exclusively found in young boys, this particular form of muscular dystrophy is considered to be the most common childhood iteration of the disease, as it becomes clinically evident when the child begins to walk.  The form of muscular dystrophy has a tendency to move swiftly; children that have the condition may need walking braces by age 10, and may lose the ability to walk altogether by the age of 12.  It also has an effect on the patient’s lifespan, as it typically truncates it down between the ages of 15 and 51.

Scientific study that has conducted on animal test subjects has determined that Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is caused due to a lack of the dystrophin, a protein that connects the cytoskeleton of a muscle fiber to the adjacent extracellular matrix via the cell membrane.  It has been deduced that the severity condition correlates with the amount of properly functioning dsytrophin that is present.  If there is an abundance of defects within the dystophin-glycoprotein complex – that is, the structure that involves dystrophin along with the presence of other key protein compounds – contraction of the muscle leads to the disruption of the outer membrane of the muscle cells and, eventually, the weakening and the wasting of the muscle itself.

The theory behind the usage of ACVR2B to combat Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, according to scientific study that has been built on animal test subjects, is that the peptide’s ability to block myostatin’s basic function to regulate muscular growth and strength can counterbalance the negative effects that can come about due to a lack of dystrophin.  Theoretically, the patient suffering from the condition would be able to achieve a proper amount of homeostasis in terms of muscle growth and strength, thus allowing them to have muscles that function properly as opposed to being weakened and wasted.

Theoretical Side Effects of ACVR2B

Scientific study that has been derived from animal test subjects has also determined several side effects that have been linked to the presence of ACVR2B.  Most of these particular negative side effects are in relation to bleeding, particularly minor bleeding through the nose, the gum, and/or minute dilated blood vessels from within the skin.  That being said, these studies have also indicated that the instances of bleeding were considered to be minor in nature.  Furthermore, it was determined that the dilated blood vessels within the skin were not considered to be a serious threat of safety amongst the animal test subjects involved in the study.

For Scientific Research Only

Although there has been an extensive amount of research and study conducted in relation to ACVR2B and its overall functionality, operational mechanics, and theorized benefits, it needs to be noted that all of the research that has been conducted and the subsequent results from such research has been solely built around the scientific study based on animal test subjects.  The peptide is only intended for the use of scientific study at this point in time.  Therefore, any findings or observations that relate to ACVR2B’s overall functionality, mechanics, or theoretical benefits, should only be contained to the strict confines of a controlled environment such as a medical research facility or a laboratory.

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ACVR2B – Part 1

ACVR2B is a peptide that has been determined to be an activin type-2 receptor, meaning that it modulates signals for ligands belonging to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily of ligands.  It possesses a molecular weight of 57.7239.  It can be known by a host of different names, including:

  • Activin receptor type-2B
  • Activin receptor type IIB
  • ACVR2B

Its appearance when it is administered for purposes of scientific study on animal test subjects is that of a white powder.

Functionality of ACVR2B

According to scientific research that has been conducted on animal test subjects, specific activins such as ACVR2B signal through a heterometric complex of receptor serine kinases that include at least two type I (I and IB) receptors and two type II (II and IIB) receptors.  These particular receptors are all transmembrane proteins, and they are composed of a ligand-binding extracellular domain featuring a transmembrane domain, a cysteine-rich region, and a cytoplasmic domain with predicted serine/threonine specificity.

This is important because of the activities that are derived from the receptors themselves. Type I receptors are essential for signaling, whereas type II receptors are needed for binding ligands and for expressing type I receptors.  These two types of receptors combine to form a stable complex in the aftermath of ligand binding.  This bond results in phosporylation of type I receptors by type II receptors.

Scientific study based on animal test subjects has determined that ACVR2B acts by connecting to proteins that normally signal through a specific activin receptor known as ActRIIB.  What’s more, the peptide has been shown to have a capacity to bind to proteins.  The most noteworthy of all of the proteins that the peptide has been noted to bind to is myostatin.  This particular protein, which is also known as growth differentiation factor 8 or GDF-8, is a secreted growth differentiation factor and member of the TGF beta protein family that blocks muscle differentiation and growth through a process known as myogenesis.  It is primarily produced in skeletal muscle cells, circulates in the blood, and acts upon the animal test subject’s muscle tissue by binding an activin type II receptor.  This act of binding causes myostatin to regulate and limit the process of muscular growth.  Studies have indicated that when this particular peptide binds with proteins such as myostatin, it prevents the proteins from interacting with the ActRIIB receptors.  The result of this blockage takes away the regulatory process behind muscular development; this removal of the regulatory process allows the muscles to grow more freely.  What’s more, it has been shown that ACVR2B also inhibits the expression of several other proteins that are typically linked to the regulation and control of muscle growth within animal test subjects.

It has been theorized by some scientific study that has been conducted on animal test subjects that due to the fact that myostatin is chiefly produced by skeletal muscle cells, its blockage would in essence trigger the enhancement of glucose metabolism, which would in turn trigger the growth of muscle.

ACVR2B and Muscle Mass

Because of the way in which ACVR2B has been shown to function in conjunction with inhibiting the expression of myostatin, scientific study that has been based on animal test subjects has derived a host of theorized benefits relating to the peptide’s presence.

The chief hypothetical benefit that has been derived from the presence of the peptide is the building up of the mass and size of skeletal muscular tissue.  Because it has been determined that ACVR2B blocks the expression of proteins that are chiefly linked to the regulation and control of muscle growth such as myostatin, it is thought that the building of muscle mass and size can occur at a significantly higher rate.  This in turn also has led to the determination that an animal test subject that is introduced to the peptide could experience a significantly more efficient sense of muscle strength.

ACVR2B and Weight Loss

It has also been hypothesized by some scientific studies conducted on animal test subjects that ACVR2B could be potentially instrumental in the acceleration of weight loss.  Some of these studies have indicated that the peptides capacity to block myostatin, and therefore increase the breakdown of glucose metabolism, would enable the fuel that would be used to provide energy to cellular units would be able to be administered on a cellular level faster.  Because of this, it is thought that the acceleration would lessen the chance for adipose tissue (that is, body fat) to develop, thus allowing an increased level of body weight regulation.  This theory has also been strengthened by the notion that some scientific study based on animal test subjects has indicated that the blockade of myostatin has led to an increase in lean muscle mass.

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SNAP-8 – Part 2

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Theoretical Benefits of SNAP-8

According to scientific study that has been conducted on animal test subjects, the primary benefit that has been linked to SNAP-8 involves the elimination and reduction of wrinkle and line depth.  Studies on animal test subjects have further indicated that this particular benefit that is thought to be derived from this particular peptide’s presence is especially prominent within specific segments of the facial area, such as the all across the forehead and around the eyes.  The impetus behind this particular theoretical benefit has to do with the peptide’s capacity to bring about a more consistent means of releasing the neurotransmitters that are responsible for signaling the process of muscle contraction.  This more consistent means of muscle contraction signaling that is provided by a more stabilized ability to release the neurotransmitters allows for a greater ability for the animal test subject to retain a proper level of muscular homeostasis.  This in turn produces a process that is an essential step in preventing the formation of deep wrinkles and lines from occurring.

It has also been determined that the peptide’s theoretical benefit of providing a greater sense of homeostasis in terms of muscular contraction gives it both preventative and replenishing capabilities.  Scientific study based on animal test subjects has determined that the peptide’s ability to signal muscle contraction on a more efficient basis could theoretically remove the presence of wrinkles that already exist, especially those that exist on an animal test subject’s face.  The notion behind this particular thought process is that by allowing the muscles to contract on a more regulated basis through a more efficient means of neurotransmission, the deep wrinkles and lines that form because of an inconsistent means of muscle contraction would fade because the muscle would be achieving a level of homeostasis on a significantly more efficient level.  In essence, due to the fact that wrinkles and lines are a product of destabilized muscle contraction and not necessarily a by-product of muscular damage, the natural process of muscle contraction as derived by proper neurotransmission would be restored, which in turn would cause the affects of prior instances of instability to be lessened on a significant basis.

Because of the peptide’s capacity to prevent wrinkles and lines, and its ability to reverse the appearance of wrinkles and lines, scientific study that has been based on animal test subjects has determined that the presence of SNAP-8 could conceivably carry anti-aging properties.  This particular concept is similar to a concept that was derived through animal test subject based scientific study processed in conjunction with acetyl hexapeptide-3.  However, the main difference between that particular peptide and SNAP-8 is that the latter has been determined to perform with a greater sense of efficiency.  This is due to the notion that SNAP-8 is able to function as a neurotransmittal stabilizing agent with a greater sense of efficiency than acetyl hexapeptide-3.

No Negative Side Effects

Scientific study that has been conducted on animal test subjects has yet to derive any negative side effects in conjunction with the usage of SNAP-8.  Tests that have been conducted on laboratory rats have determined that there is no acute oral toxicity with the peptide when administered to the rodents within a normal dosage.  Other tests that have been conducted on animal test subjects have also determined that the peptide does not promote any semblance of genotoxicity or citotoxicity during in vitro tests.  Furthermore, it has also been determined that the peptide does not cause any ocular-based irritation as a side effect.  It should be noted that these tests that have derived no semblance of side effects in relation to SNAP-8 were both conducted in vitro and in vivo.

Only for Research Purposes

Despite the fact that an extensive amount of study and research has been done in order to pinpoint the overall functionality of SNAP-8, up to and including the ways in which it can promote various process, it needs to be emphasized that all of the research that has been conducted in conjunction with the peptide has only been constructed around scientific studies that have been based on animal test subjects.  Furthermore, the current use of the peptide is solely intended for scientific research purposes and nothing more.  Any findings or observations relating to SNAP-8’s overall functionality the determinations that can be derived from such observations should be exclusively contained to a strictly controlled environment such as a laboratory or a medical research facility.

Click here to read SNAP-8 – Part 1