What is PT-141 (Bremelanotide)?

pt-141PT-141 (Bremelanotide) is a research cyclic peptide whose scientific study on animal test subjects is primarily tied to potentially positive effects relating to hemorrhagic shock and reperfusion injury.  It contains a molecular mass of 1025.2, and carries a molecular formula of C50H68N14O10.  It also has a half-life of 120 minutes.

The Scientific Process of PT-141 Bremelanotide

PT-141 Bremelanotide’s operational mechanics has been shown to be linked to the central nervous system.  On a more specific level, according to scientific study based on animal test subjects, PT-141 Bremelanotide has been shown to activate melanocortin receptors MC-3R and MC-4R.  This action of activation has allowed scientific study on animal test subject to determine that the peptide engages in this way as a means to inhibit and control specific signals which are transmitted from the brain to various components of the nervous system that relate to inflammation and blood flow restriction.  When these particular receptors are triggered, the result is a modulation of inflammation and a limit of blood flow restrictions as they relate to triggers that are linked to ischemic conditions.

Ultimately, this sense of control has enabled scientific study based on animal test subjects to hone in on the peptide’s purpose.  Essentially, they said this function was twofold.  Firstly, the peptide can be shown to curb bodily irritation which can be brought upon by various pathogens and irritants.  Secondly, the peptide can minimize the damage or dysfunction of blood vessels and other associated tissues, up to and including the damage that could result from an ischemic episode.

Additional scientific study that has been based on animal test subjects has determined that PT-141 Bremelanotide’s course of action is through the central nervous system, as opposed to directly expressing itself through the bloodstream.

PT-141 Bremelanotide and Hemorrhagic Shock

One of the main focuses of scientific study based on animal test subjects is determining the link between PT-141 Bremelanotide and the serious condition of hemorrhagic shock.  Essentially, the condition itself is marked by lower tissue perfusion, which over time turns in an inadequate delivery of oxygen an nutrients that are vital for cellular function.  The condition is split into four classes: neurogenic; cardiogeneic; hypovolemic; and vasogenic – better known as septic.  Overall, it is a very tricky ailment to deal with when it’s observed on a cellular level, because no two cells will express the exact presentation of shock identically.

Scientific study based on anima test subjects has shown that PT-141 Bremelanotide’s design is to stimulate the neural reflects as a method to regulate blood flow through organs that would otherwise slow down o even shut down as a result of hemorrhagic shock.  This particular manner of stimulation can be manifested in several ways, such as:

  • A boosted heart rate
  • Vasocsontriction
  • A redistribution of blood flow away from organs that an animal test subject would deem to be unnecessary for ultimate survival, such as the skin or the kidneys

PT-141 Bremelanotide and Reperfusion Injury

Another main area of scientific study that has been based on animal test subjects is determining a link between PT-141 Bremelanotide and its conceived ability to lessen the effects of reperfusion injury.  In essence, a reperfusion injury refers to the type of tissue damage that could be caused in the wake of an ischemic episode, such as  a stroke or angina pectoris.  When this condition happens, a process that is normally considered to be important – that is, the circulation of blood flow through an organ – actually results in oxidative damage and inflammation via the condition of oxidative stress.

It has been determined via scientific study on animal test subjects that PT-141 Bremelanotide can work on a neurological level in order to lower the inhibitions that would otherwise be linked to the restriction of blood flow to tissues as a result of the ischemic cascade.  The ultimate result of this process would translate to a lowering or even a blockage of any and all resultant damage that may otherwise happen from blood flow limitation to potentially affected areas.

Other Focuses of Study

While the studies between PT-141 Bremelanotide and its respective links to hemorrhagic shock and reperfusion injury are the most prominent fields of study regarding the peptide, it should be noted that some studies in relation to the peptide has been focused on discovering a link between it and sexual dysfunction in both male and female animal test subjects.

Sources:

We have PT-141 available for purchase in our store:

You can read more essays we have prepared on this peptide by clicking the links below:

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What is Thymosin Beta 4 (TB500)?

tb500 The polypeptide Thymosin Beta 4 (TB500), also known as Tβ4, is a peptide that has a molecular formula of C12H35N56O78S and a molecular weight of 4963.4408.  Its structure is comprised of a chain made up of 43 different amino acids.  It is currently being used exclusively for scientific study on animal test subjects.

How Thymosin Beta 4 (TB 500) Works

According to scientific study based on an animal test subjects, the primary impetus of operation regarding Thymosin Beta 4 (TB 500) relates to its ability to regulate and control the production of actin.  This cell building protein acts as a critical part of a cell’s overall genetic design and functionality.  It has been shown to be an essential part of processes that relate to cellular motility, cell division, cytokinesis, cell signaling, muscle contraction, and vesicle and organelle movement.

The way in which Thymosin Beta 4 (TB 500) has been shown to interact with actin is that its structure allows it to bind to the protein.  This action thus produces a molecule within an eukaryotic cellular unit that inhibits acting polymerization, which is the process of reacting monomer molecules in conjunction with a chemical reaction; this process forms polymer chains or three dimensional networks.

This relationship that Thymosin Beta 4 (TB 500) has with actin ultimately is at the base of several bodily processes.  Some of these processes include:

  • A boost of endothelial and keratinocyte migration – this process means that Thymosin Beta 4 (TB 500) aids to not only form and maintain blood vessels, but it can also help in the creation of an epidermal barrier against heat, water loss, UV rays, and other pathogens.
  • Wound healing capabilities – it has been determined that Thymosin Beta 4 (TB 500) can be detected in the fluid that can build up and around an animal test subject’s wound, and it has shown that its natural properties contribute to a wound getting better.
  • Long distance internal transport – Because Thymosin Beta 4 (TB 500) has been determined to have a low molecular weight, it has been determined that the peptide has the ability to travel through tissues over the course of long distances.

The Fruits of This Relationship

Because of the relationship that Thymosin Beta 4 (TB 500) has in terms of binding with actin, scientific study that has been built on animal test subjects has determined that Thymosin Beta 4 (TB 500)’s overall operational mechanics could play a vital role in elevating  a hot of bodily processes.

Arguably, the most obvious of these processes relates to dealing with the process of wound repair.  Because the peptide has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties in addition to its abilities regarding wound repair, scientific study that has based on animal test subjects as determined that it can provide an increased efficiency to wounds repair relating to wounds that would otherwise heal slowly.

Another process that has been shown to be elevated ties to the injury recovery process.  Because Thymosin Beta 4 (TB 500) has been shown to boost a faster rate of cellular generation through its interaction with actin, scientific study based on animal test subjects has determined that it has the faculty to allow for a boosted rate of muscular and skeletal tissue growth to occur.

Additionally, scientific study based on animal test subjects has derived the notion that Thymosin Beta 4 (TB 500) could play a key role in the growth of muscular tissue.  This process has been linked to its shown ability to promote cellular migration, which in turn is said to be able to boost cellular growth and transport.

These studies have also noted that Thymosin Beta 4 (TB 500)’s functionality could provide a boost in flexibility on a muscular level.  This notion is directly tied to the peptide’s ability to protect the animal test subject from pathogens as well as its abilities regarding muscular contraction.  These principles are said to allow an animal test subject the ability to experience a greater range of physical stress and movement without experiencing any hyperextension.

Other benefits that have been tied to Thymosin Beta 4 (TB 500) include a boosted process of angiogenesis (that is, the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing blood vessels), collage deposition, and cell differentiation in blood cells.

Sources:

We have two variations of TB 500 available for purchase in our store:

You can read more essays we have prepared on this peptide by clicking the links below:

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