AICA Ribonucleotide (AICAR)

AICA Ribonucleotide (AICAR) is a peptide that contains the ability to boost the functionality of the nutrients stores of the cell; the part of the cell that is responsible for energy production.   It can go under a host of different names, including:

  • ZMP
  • Acadesine
  • 5-aminoimodozloe-4carboxamide ribonucleotide

How AICA Ribonucelotide Functions

In essence, AICA Ribonucleotide enables an increased amount of blood flow throughout the body, according to scientific research that has been conducted on animal test subjects.  This increase of blood flow enables for an elevated instance of oxygen receipt and glucose intake on a cellular level, which then produces a more efficient level of energy and a greater instance of regulated metabolic homeostasis.

From a scientific standpoint, the peptide accomplishes this by entering cardiac cells and stopping the production of adenosine kinase (ADK), an enzyme that serves as a catalyst for the transfer of the gamma-phosphate from ATP to adenosine, which acts as a regulator of aggregations of both extracellular and intracellular adenine nucleotides.  AICA Ribonucleotide is also responsible for preventing the production of adenosine deaminase (ADA), an enzyme that breaks down adenosine which is then responsible for the turnover in nucleic acids in tissues.  The prevention of the two enzymes enables more processes relating to an increase of blood flow and glucose intake to occur, while at the same time staving off the process of programmed cellular death.  Ultimately, this leads to a more efficient and longer-lasting instance of energy conversion.

Benefits of AICA Ribonucleotide

AICA ribonucleotide (AICAR) 50MG
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According to laboratory research conducted on animal test subjects, it has been determined that there are a host of benefits that have been tied to AICA Ribonucleotide.

The primary benefit that has been derived pertains to the peptide’s association with cardiac ischemic injury.  This particular ailment is caused because of a restriction of blood supply to tissues, which can then cause insufficient amounts of oxygen and glucose to be received on a cellular level.  This disrupts proper cellular metabolism, which in turn can significantly hinder an animal test subject’s bodily tissue to remain alive.  In a cardiac ischemic episode, this could cause several serious issues, up to and including cardiac arrest.

It is theorized that AICA Ribonculeotide’s ability to increase blood flow and gluclose intake can provide a sense of stability in the event of a cardiac ischemic episode.  According to scientific research conducted on animal test subjects, the peptide’s inherent functionality can reduce the risk of heart failure as well as provide a crucial aid in the aftermath of a heart attack.

There are other benefits that have been attached to the peptide as well.  For instance, the elevated level in blood flow and glucose intake enables the cells of animal test subjects to convert energy on a much more efficient level, thus providing a longer sense of endurance.  This increase in efficiency also translates to an increased ability to break down adipose tissue, which in turn translates to an increased capability to burning fat in animal test subjects, provided that they were kept on a consistent dietary regiment.

Side Effects and Other Concerns

Scientific research on animal test subjects has also determined a few negative side effects in relation to AICA Ribonucleotide.  Most of these issues relate to various heart ailments, up to and including cardiac arrest.  These negative side effects are primarily tied to the circulatory system of animal test subjects.  Because of the higher rate of blood flow efficiency that the peptide creates, the circulatory system would also need to work at an increased efficiency.  If this system exhibits signs of struggle when it comes to pumping blood, such as weakness or impediment due to clogging, the stress that the peptide could inadvertently create on the system could potentially cause problems.

Other scientific research on animal test subjects has led to concerns over AICA Ribonucleotide and a potential link to Huntington’s Disease.  The theory here is that the peptide’s increase in process efficiency may inadvertently promote the kind of neurodegeneration that is tied to the serious and eventually fatal condition, which is caused in part due to metabolic imbalances on a cellular level.  However, it has yet to be determined if the peptide’s functionality protects neurons from the imbalances that it causes.

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Epithalon

The tetrapeptide Epithalon is a peptide consisting of a quartet of amino acids.  It has a molecular weight of 390.3459, and its molecular formula is C14H22N4O9.  It can sometimes be referred to as Epitalon, Epithalone, CID2192042, and LS-72251.

Epithalon and the Aging Process

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Scientific study that has been conducted on animal test subjects has determined that Epithalon’s presence and overall functionality can be linked to the naturally occurring process of aging.  The reason for this link has to do with how it relates to a cellular component known as telomeres and a peptide expression known as telomerase.

In essence, telomeres are strands that are located in a cellular unit that act to bind DNA sequences.  This binding allows an animal test subject to read the genetic code that is part of this sequencing in a manner in which it should be properly read.  As a cell goes through the process of division, the telomeres also get divided.  However, whatever is lost during the division process can be replenished through the expression of telomerase, which act to more or less rebuild the telomeres as the cells split.

However, the expression of telomerase ceases over a period of time.  When this cessation occurs, telomeres get shorter and weaker with every process of cellular division.  Eventually, the telomeres become so weak, they in essence unravel.  When this act of unraveling occurs, the DNA sequencing becomes unbound and scattered.  With this sequencing in disarray, the animal test subject cannot properly decipher the genetic code, and responds by enabling processes that relate to the overarching aging process to occur.

Epithalon is related to this process because scientific study based on animal test subjects has determined that the peptide’s presence enables a boost in the production of telomerase.  This in turn enables the telomeres the ability to stay stronger and longer for a more sustained period of time.  Ultimately, this increased strength and length enables an animal test subject the capacity to stave off the aging process.

Biological Age vs. Chronological Age

The primary function of Epithalon, based on the way in which it has been shown to function, is to create a separation between an animal test subject’s biological age versus its chronological age.  Whereas chronological age is linear and dictated by the inflexible march of time, biological age is essentially set by how an animal test subject’s body functions in its overall processes.  While there is nothing that can prevent an animal test subject’s chronological age from moving forward, studies have indicated that Epithalon can slow down or even lower the biological age because of the way in which it works to promote the creation of telomerase and preserve the integrity of telomeres.

What These Processes Mean

While scientific study based on animal test subjects has determined that Epithalon’s overall functionality can play a key role in slowing down the aging process, its study has also yielded a host of other various aspects that can be deemed as positive.

One of these processes relates to the way it may be able to stem the onset of various potentially deadly diseases whose existence are at least partially tied to the overall aging process.  Some of these diseases include:

  • Cancer
  • Stroke
  • Heart failure
  • A lowering of mental function, up to and including dementia

What’s more, the peptide’s ability to slow down the overall aging process has led scientific study based on animal test subjects to come up with the notion that it can allow them a longer stretch of time to identify the triggers that could signal the onset of these conditions.

Epithalon and Lipolsysis

Further scientific study based on animal test subjects has determined that Epithalon’s presence could play a key role in promoting the act of lipolysis, which is the process where fatty acids are broken down.  Because Epithalon has been shown to preserve the integrity of telomeres, it has been determined that it can also provide an elevated instance of processes that tend to slow down as an animal test subject ages, such as lipolysis.  The theory goes that an increased presence of Epithalon will allow for an animal test subject to burn through body fat on a much more efficient basis than it would without its presence.

Only for Research Purposes

Despite the fact that an extensive amount of study and research has been done in order to pinpoint the overall functionality of Epithalon, it needs to be emphasized that all of the research that has been conducted in conjunction with the peptide has only been constructed around scientific studies that have been based on animal test subjects.  A such, any findings or observations relating to Epithalon’s overall functionality the determinations that can be derived from such observations should be exclusively contained to a strictly controlled environment such as a laboratory or a medical research facility.

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GHRP–6

The peptide GHRP – 6 is a hexipeptide, meaning that its structure is that of a chain consisting of six amino acids.  It is considered to be a secretogogue, meaning that it is a substance that causes a separate substance to be secreted.  It has a molecular formula of C46H56N12O6, and its molecular weight is 873.014.

GHRP – 6 Basics

In essence, GHRP – 6’s overall operational mechanics can be traced to four vital components to an organism, according to scientific study that has been based on animal test subjects.  These components are:

  • The pituitary gland – This pea-sized gland located at the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain is chiefly responsible for the regulation and control of a host of endocrine system-related bodily functions, from growth and metabolism to pain relief and temperature control.
  • The central nervous system – The segment of an animal test subject’s nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord.  It is responsible for the integration and coordination of all information experienced by an animal test subject
  • The stomach – The digestive system organ that is responsible for the breaking down of food in animal test subjects.
  • The liver – The vital organ that is responsible for detoxification, protein synthesis, and the production of biochemicals vital for digestion.
GHRP–6 5mg
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In essence, GHRP – 6 has been shown to block the pituitary gland’s ability to inhibit the production of secretions in animal test subjects.  What this means is, it provide an enhanced ability to produce hormones related to an animal test subject’s growth, thus enabling the subject to experience a significantly more efficient means of experiencing a level of homeostasis.

Additionally, scientific study based on animal test subjects has shown that it can boost the travel of information of this increased capacity for secretion production.  It can do this because it has been determined to aid in the activation of intracellular signaling pathways used by hormones as it enhances the process of cellular survival.  This link has led studies to determine that its presence could play a vital role in preventing loss and function on a cellular level in the wake of a hypoxic-ischemic brain injury such as a stroke or a lack of oxygen to the brain as brought about by cardiac arrest.

Further scientific study based on animal test subjects has been able to indicate that GHRP – 6 has the ability to increase the production of the amino acid ghrelin.  This amino acid, which is primarily produced by the cells that line the stomach, stimulates the sensation of hunger as it counteracts the production of leptin; an amino acid whose secretion stimulates the sensation of feeling full.  GHRP – 6 has been shown to increase levels of ghrelin production, thus allowing the animal test subject to experience a greater need to intake food for fuel.  This added fuel in turn allows for the increased secretions as dictated by GHRP – 6’s relationship with the pituitary gland to take place.

GHRP – 6 has also been shown to be instrumental in the production of IGF-1, or Insulin-like Growth Factor 1.  This stomach-expressed secretion has been shown to possess anabolic properties, meaning that it plays a role in boosting the growth and repair of muscles and tissues.  GHRP – 6 has been shown to possess a capacity to boost the production of this particular secretion in animal test subjects, thus enabling a more efficient means of homeostasis relating to muscle and skeletal tissue growth.

The Results of these Interactions

According to scientific study that has been conducted on animal test subjects, it has been determined that GHRP – 6 and its overall functionality enables a host of boosted processes to occur.  For example, its relationship with IGF-1 has led to the notion that it can boost muscle mass and the rate of muscle and tissue repair.  This same relationship has also been linked to a promotion of bone tissue growth.  Its ability to provide a higher rate of functionality through the pituitary gland has also led to the notion that it can promote an accelerated rate at which adipose tissue (that is, body fat) can be broken down, despite the fact that its interaction with ghrelin could cause a higher intake of food.  Other elevated processes linked to GHRP – 6 include a strengthening of joints, strengthening of connective tissue, and a boosted immune system.

For Scientific Research Only

Although there has been an extensive amount of research and study conducted in relation to GHRP – 6, it needs to be noted that all of the research that has been conducted has been solely built around the scientific study based on animal test subjects.  Therefore, any findings or observations that relate to GHRP – 6’s overall functionality, mechanics, or theoretical benefits, should only be contained to the strict confines of a controlled environment such as a medical research facility or a laboratory.

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