How Peptides are Manufactured (Part 3)

How are They Created by Nature

In order to be organized into peptides and proteins, cells must arrange amino acids based on a template. Once the amino acids are organized into an appropriate structure, they are released from the template and moved to other locations within or outside the cell.

Needless to say, the process that converts amino acids into functional peptides is as fascinating as it is complicated. If you keep a few basic steps in mind, it will be much easier to remember and understand how they fit into the overall structure of cell function and the capacity to carry out basic life needs.

Cellular Machinery

There are two basic organelles required to make peptides. First, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a ribbon like organelle that runs throughout the cell. It acts as an anchor point as well as transmission channel for completed proteins and peptides. Depending on the phase any given cell is in, the ER may be involved in producing proteins and peptides or some other molecule.

Ribosomes (small granular organelles) attach to the endoplasmic reticulum and assemble peptides based on a template that feed through them. At this stage, the ER is often referred to as “rough” since ribosomes can be seen attached to it under a microscope. Typically, ribosomes will not bond to the ER unless the ribosomes are already bound to a template. Interestingly enough, the start and stop sequences on any given template are composed of peptides that facilitate bonding or breaking away from the ER.

The Template

If you have done any research on protein, genetic material, and peptide synthesis, then you may already realize that a special set of nucleic acids are used to form templates. For example, if the origin template utilizes RNA, the four nucleic acids involved are adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil. If the cell uses DNA for its genetic material, uracil is exchanged for thymine.

No matter whether the cell makes use of RNA or DNA, ribosomes cannot simply attach to the chromosome and begin transcribing proteins. Instead, special peptides and other molecules attach to the genetic material and create copies, or transcriptions of the required template pieces. Typically, this process will start at a specific code within the nucleic acid, and then end at a different point. Even though messenger RNA and transfer RNA are still formed from nucleic acids, they are able to bond with, and act as the template for arranging amino acids within ribosomes.

Why Manufacture Synthetic Peptides

There is no question that there are billions of molecules of peptides available in nature. On the other hand, gaining access to pure quantities of them can be very difficult. This is just one of many reasons why researchers are increasingly relying on ways to manufacture synthetic peptides. While discovering brand new ones still requires the usage of organic, living cells, producing them in useful quantities tends to make it easier to go past that point.

 

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How Peptides are Manufactured (Part 2)

A Guide to Amino Acids

It can be said that amino acids are a special group of molecules that have a basic form. No matter whether the amino acid is found in the cell of a bacteria, human being, or a plant, it will have the same structure and may even carry out the same functions within the cell. Even though there are well over 500 amino acids, most organisms make use of 22 standard amino acids, and a handful of others that may be useful based on certain conditions.

For example, specialized amino acids may be produced to function based on PH levels within a cell, variable temperatures, or the presence of oxygen. Unfortunately, more research needs to be done in order to determine how many non-standard amino acids are used, as well as their role in any given organism under any given environmental condition.

Standard Amino Acid Shape

Amino acids are usually composed of a handful of atoms, (Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and Oxygen) that are arranged into specific structures. This includes a side chain, a COOH (carboxylic acid) unit, and an NH2 (amine) unit. Visually, it is easiest to imagine the COOH unit at one end of the amino acid, a chain or ring of carbons down the center, and NH2 at the other end.

The side chain is usually attached to the backbone. Depending on the amino acid in question, this side chain may form a chain of atoms, or form a carbon ring with other atoms attached to it.

Basic Ways Organisms Use Peptides

Regardless of whether you are studying a cell with a single strand of RNA for its genetic material or hundreds of strands of DNA, you can rest assured that coding information exists for hundreds, if not millions of peptides. Therefore, it should come as no surprise that peptides represent some of the most important molecules found within any given cell.

In single cell organisms they can be used to signal the start and stop of cellular division, open RNA or DNA for replication or transcription, and determine which molecules are made at any given moment. Peptides may also be used to facilitate the conversion of glucose and other forms of fuel into energy.

When it comes to multi-cellular organisms, peptides become even more important. For example, the vast majority of plants and animals would not be able to survive without insulin. This particular peptide bonds to glucose in the blood or sap of an animal or plant, and then encourages transport across cellular membranes.

Without this particular peptide, it would be impossible for cells to take in glucose. In a similar way, peptides can act as hormones, neurotransmitters, and signaling molecules. You may even find that peptides play roles in immune responses, and just about any other process that requires a signaling cascade within cells or specific tissues.

 

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We’ve had our CJC-1295 Tested By An Independent Lab

We take our Cjc 1295 supply very seriously. Every 6-8 weeks we have all of our peptides and chems sent to independent labs for testing. You can view our test results for our LR3 by clicking here. Feel free to browse through the reports below, and let us know if you have any questions! Our Cjc 1295 is the best you can buy, its USA made, and we personally guarantee every order to be of the absolute highest quality.

MOD GRF 1-29 (088421) REPORT

Product Name:088421

Instrument No: 0200023

Lot No :P120913-LC088421

Column :4.6*250mm,Kromasil C18-5

Solvent A :0.1%Trifluoroacetic in 100% Acetonirile

Solvent B :0.1%Trifluoroacetic in 100% Water

Gradient : A B

0.01min 32% 68 %

25min 57% 43%

25.1min 100% 0%

30min Stop

Flow rate :1.0ml/min

Wavelength :220nm

Volume:10ul

File opened: G:\88421-32-57.hw, where

────────────────────────────

Rank Time Conc. Area Height

────────────────────────────

1 7.849 0.3514 6609 728

2 8.853 0.09197 1730 253

3 10.892 0.5065 9525 1325

4 11.307 98.14 1845894 139691

5 11.638 0.9032 16988 3036

────────────────────────────

Total 100 1880746 145033

_______________________________________________________________

GHRP-6 Mass Spectrometry Report

Sample: 055254 MW: 873.04

 

________________________________________________________________

Mass Spectrometry Report

Sample: 088421 MW: 3367.97

 
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