The Impact of GHRP6 on obese Conditions

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Obesity can interfere with the function of organs such as the pituitary gland or pancreas. If these organs cannot receive the proper messages then the system will fail to produce proper levels of chemicals, such as insulin.

Studies are undergoing to determine the effectiveness of using artificial hormones to help regulate these hormone levels. The growth chemical GHRP6 is currently being studied for such a purpose, though it will take some time before any coherent results are determined.

Natural Interactions with Insulin

GHRP6Natural hormones are designed to stimulate a variety of chemicals to encourage the tissue cells to multiply.

  • Hormones are designed to stimulate the pituitary or other glands or what’s secreted from these glands to stimulate tissue. GHRP6 is a chemical that has been designed to mimic the properties of the latter group.
  • Different types of hormones are intended to stimulate different types of tissue. This may include stimulating bone knitting or muscle production.
  • Some natural hormones will also stimulate the pancreas. If these hormones are not functioning properly it can result in excessive growth that may result in obesity.

It is important to note that artificial hormones such as GHRP6 do not function in the same manner as the natural hormones they are designed to mimic.

In tests on rats it has been shown that chemicals such as GHRP6 remain in the system much longer than hormones which naturally occur in the system. The impact this added time in the system has on the tissues is not yet known.

Impact of GHRP6 on Hypopituitary and Obese Conditions

Scientists have determined that a low reproducibility rate of hormones may increase the risk of obesity.

  • To determine the full effects of these hormones, a variety of mice subjects including males and females were studied. Groups included those that were obese, obese but otherwise healthy, those that suffered from hypopituitarism and those with a normal body-mass and health rates. These subjects were checked using a radioimmunoassay to determine the natural hormone rates in their system.
  • The study concluded that those mice suffering from hypo-pituitarism, specifically those that were already obese, saw a significant dip in their natural hormones. Those that did not suffer from hypopituitarism or those with a normal body mass index did not see this response.

GHRP6 and acipimox were offered as a potential treatment option to correct these levels in the mice that saw a hormone decrease.

The conclusions showed that doses of acipimox or GHRP6 were not effective in restoring the natural hormone levels necessary to overcome hypopituitarism. However, a combination of the natural GHRH and GHRP6 saw fewer side effects than the other doses.

Additional research will be necessary to determine the safety or full effectiveness of artificial hormones in treating organic conditions.

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Melanotan II – Reductions of Melanocortin Receptor Expressions

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Ongoing trials of melanotan II are attempting to discover a way to activate natural melanin in an animal to protect the skin from UV rays that can cause skin cancer by stimulating the natural hormones that cause tanned skin. While research has developed a version of this chemical that is more stable, the trials have not revealed a version of this chemical that has been determined safe for use.

Effects on Sexual Behaviors in Female Rats

The effects of melanotan II were examined to determine their ability to stimulate hormones associated with female sexual behavior on the consummatory and appetitive aspects of the behavior in female rats.

Perceptive behaviors such as ear wiggling, hops and darts, pacing and solicitations, as well as receptive behaviors including lordosis, were measured to determine the effectiveness of the chemical.

One group of female rats was given a subcutaneous primer of estradiol benzonate and progesterone. Another group was primed with EB and oil.

Melanotan 2

Pacing tests were performed in the company of experienced male rats with uni-level chambers. They were bisected by Plexiglas dividers that had three holes where the female could pass.

Females were primed with EB and oil or melanotan II in three administrations and all sexual behaviors after the administration were measured.

The findings of this study indicate that progesterone can interact with melanotan II to increase sexual behaviors. The behaviors of the rats could indicate solicitations, suggesting that the melanocortin receptors can affect female animals with hypoactive sexual desire.

Reductions of Melanocortin 3 and 4 Receptor Expressions

This experiment hopes to track the effects of chronic activation of central melanocortin with melanotan II in obese rats fed a high fat chow diet.

The rats were given six infusions of melanotan II a day which was found to reduce the visceral adiposity and body weight of the animals compared to those that had a suppressed caloric intake.

The reaction to melanotan II was found to be similar to those exposed to CH or DIO. The rats exposed to melanotan II saw a sustained increase in oxygen consumption similar to that of DIO, but those exposed to CH saw a delayed response.

The melanotan II groups saw a reduction in their cholesterol levels compared to those in the control group.

Results also showed that the melanotan II group saw an increase in catabolism of fat and muscle content. The DIO rats saw an improvement in cholesterol metabolism or glucose rates compared to the other groups.

Ongoing trials are being conducted to better determine a concentration of melanotan II that is safe for use in animal studies without the high risk of hazardous effects.

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Levothyroxine T4 – The Effects on Hypothyroidism

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Levothyroxine T4 refers to a synthetic chemical that mimics the natural chemical thyroxine. Thyroxine is secreted by the follicular cells within the thyroid. Scientists are attempting to perfect an artificial version of this hormone as a means of treating thyroid deficiencies or cancers in animals in the future.

Currently, research into the development of levothyroxine T4 largely focuses on addressing the symptoms of hypothyroidism. Some studies have implied that this chemical could be used to manage goiter because it has been shown to lower the presence of thyroid-stimulating hormone in animal subjects.

However, the application of this chemical must be taken with care as test subjects that were exposed to this chemical long-term showed a variety of negative side effects including decreases in bone mineral density.

Effects on Hypothyroidism on the Testes of Mature Rats

The study hoped to investigate the effects of propylthiouracil (PTU) on rat testes compared to the treatment regimens of zinc and levothyroxine.

  • A group of 20 sexually mature albino rats were exposed to PTU for two weeks to make the subjects hypothyroidism.
  • The effects of PTU on the testicular function were studied using histopathological methods after the unilateral orchiectomy performed on day 15 of the study. Treatments were evaluated using serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and the zinc levels on the first day, after one week and on day 15.
  • After this administration, the rats were divided into five groups that would be given lr3 igf1 or zinc for a total of 15 days.

Those treated with levothyroxine saw a decreased tubular diameter, thickening of the basal membrane and interstitial oedema in the hypothyroidic testicles. After the treatment was completed the testicular histology and the spermatogenesis would gradually recover in all of the groups that were given hypothyroidism.

Levothyroxine T4

Those that were given a combination of levothyroxine and zinc sulphate saw the greatest increase in improvement levels, which implies that zinc may have an effect on testicular function.

Effect on Rat Skeletal Muscle Resistance Arteries

This study investigates the idea that hormones would have vasodilatory effects on the body of the subjects and attempts to determine if such effects would be endothelium-dependent.

  • Skeletal muscle in rats and the resistance arteries of around 100 microns were dissected to measure the vessel diameter changes by using a video-detection system.
  • Each vessel was then pre-constricted using thromboxane to measure the percentage of dilation after the exposure of increasing concentrations of levothyroxine or triiodothyronine. Dialation in response to triiodothyronine was measured after the endothelial denudation.
  • The measurements indicated that triiodothyronine had a greater effect on the rat test subjects than levothyroxine.

These results indicate that thyroid hormones cause direct vasodilatory effects in body endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent components. These results imply that that these hormones can have direct vasodilatory effects which can partially account for the cardiovascular actions these hormones have when a rat has hyperthyroidism or when the chemicals were administered pharmacologically during cardiac surgery.

Given the current risk of side effects associated with the application of levothyroxine T4 in animal test subjects, this chemical is not yet approved for use in human subjects or in a clinical setting.


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