Myostatin HMP – Part 2

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Myostatin HMP and Muscular Dystrophy

A great amount of scientific study that has been based on animal test subjects in relation to the presence of Myostatin HMP is its theoretical use as an aid in combating muscular dystrophy.

In essence, the term muscular dystrophy is an umbrella representation of a term that involves a host of muscular diseases that have been shown to weaken the muscoskeletal system and eventually slow down or even inhibit locomotion.  It is primarily characterized by the progressive weakening of the skeletal muscle, defects in muscle proteins and the death of muscle tissue and muscle cells.  The majority of the conditions that fall under this umbrella term are multiple symptom disorders that appear in the body systems including the heart, the nervous system, the endocrine glands, the gastrointestinal system, the brain, and the eyes.

The symptoms that exist behind muscular dystrophy come in varying ranges of severity.  These symptoms range from drooping eyelids, muscle spasms, arrhythmias, and poor balance to frequent falls, scoliosis, the inability to walk, and progressive muscular wasting.

There are several types of diseases that fall under the muscular dystrophy umbrella.  Some of these diseases include:

  • Becker muscular dystrophy
  • Congenital muscular dystrophy
  • Duchenne muscular dystrophy
  • Distal muscular dystrophy
  • Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy
  • Facioscapulohmeral muscular dystrophy
  • Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy
  • Myotonic muscular dystrophy
  • Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy

Each of these particular forms of muscular dystrophy comes with various issues that negatively impact the muscles in different ways.  In some cases, the forms of muscular dystrophy will truncate a victim’s lifespan, sometimes dramatically.  In other cases, the weakening of muscle tissue extends to vital organs such as the heart, which could tie in to the shortening of a victim’s overall lifespan.

Scientific studies that have been built on animal test subjects have looked at Myostatin HMP as a potential combatant to muscular dystrophy and the various issues that it brings because of the way it functions.  Due to the fact that the presence of the peptide works to block the expression of myostatin, it is thought that it could help make it easier for sufferers of muscular dystrophy to build and retain muscle mass and size.  This would not necessarily lead to a significant amount of increased muscle mass.  Rather, it would hypothetically be able to counteract the effects of muscle wasting that is main part of the disease, thus allowing the victim to experience a certain level of homeostasis.  Ultimately, the research that is being conducted in regards to the peptide is that it could allow for a more effective means of disease management.

Negative Side Effects Unknown

Scientific study that has been based on animal test subjects have not been able to produce any concrete evidence as to whether or not there are any significant major side effects that flare up in conjunction with Myostatin HMP.  This is primarily due to the fact that the peptide itself is still in the research phase.

That being said, it has been noted through scientific study that some animal test subjects that have been used in conjunction with the peptide could potentially experience issues that are related to reproduction.  There is also the hypothetical concern that the presence of the peptide could result in muscle growth that occurs too efficiently, which could lead to excessive muscle growth.  It should also be noted that conditions that may otherwise be associated with a proliferation of muscular tissue, such as the inflammation and degeneration of existing muscle, have not been shown to improve.

There are also some studies that theorize the peptide’s ability to grow muscle could have a negative impact on tendons.  Specifically, these studies indicate that the process of blocking the inhibitors may cause tendons to become small and brittle.  It is further theorized that if the tendons become brittle, the animal test subject will be more susceptible to muscle based injuries.  However, further research is needed to make this particular determination more concrete in nature.

Nowhere But a Restricted Environment

While plenty of research and study has been conducted regarding the overall functionality and mechanics, benefits, or side effects of Myostatin HMP, the peptide is still solely intended for the use of scientific study at this point in time.  Specifically, any research and the subsequent results of such research have solely been built on scientific study that has been based on animal test subjects.  Because of this, it needs to be emphasized that any observations in relation to Myostatin HMP’s overall functionality, mechanics, benefits, or side effects should be contained to a controlled environment like a medical research facility or a laboratory only.

Click here to read Myostatin HMP – Part 1

Myostatin HMP – Part 1

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Myostatin HMP is a protein that is considered an inhibitor of growth differentiation factor.  It can be referred to by several different names, including Growth Factor 8, Differentiation Factor 8, GDF-8, GDF8, Myostatin, and MSTN.  When it is used in conjunction with scientific study based on animal test subjects, it has the appearance of a white powder.  The peptide has a molecular weight of 25.0 kDa.

Myostatin HMP vs. Myostatin

According to scientific study that has been conducted on animal test subjects, the primary purpose of Myostatin HMP is to act as an inhibitor to myostatin.

Myostatin has been determined to be a secreted growth differentiation factor, meaning that it is part of a subfamily of proteins that are part of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily that have functions chiefly associated with development.  Specifically, it is part of the TGF beta protein family that blocks the process of muscle differentiation and growth in myogenesis, which is the process in which muscular tissue is formed particularly during embryonic development.  The peptide is chiefly produced via skeletal muscle cells.  It also circulates throughout the blood and is known to act on muscle tissue by binding a cell-bound receptor that is known as the activin type II receptor.

When the peptide binds to the receptor, it results in the recruitment of a coreceptor known as either Alk-3 or Alk-4.  This particular coreceptor in turn commences with a cell signaling cascade within the muscle, which includes the activation of transcription factors with the SMAD family, which are intracellular proteins that transducer extracellular signals from transforming growth factor beta ligands to the nucleus where they turn on downstream gene transcription.  Specifically, the peptides are known to activate SMAD2 and SMAD3.  These particular factors in turn initiate gene regulation that is specific to myostatin.  When applied to myoblasts – that is, the impetus that creates the long, tubular cells that gradually develop into muscle fibers – the peptide inhibits their differentiation into mature fibers.

Additionally, scientific study that has been conducted on animal test subjects has determined that Myostatin also blocks Akt, a kinase that has been thought to be sufficient enough to cause muscle hypertrophy (that is, an increase in the size of skeletal muscle) partially via the activation of protein synthesis.  As such, the peptide is thought to act by inhibiting muscle differentiation and by inhibiting Akt-induced protein synthesis.  Furthermore, the peptide has been classified as a myokine.  In other words, it is considered to be a peptide that is produced, expressed, and released by muscle fibers and are known to exert endocrine, paracrine, or autocrine effects.

Myostatin HMP’s Effects

Scientific study based on animal test subjects has determined that Myostatin HMP’s ability to inhibit the production of Myostatin lessens the regulatory effects on skeletal muscle growth.  Because Myostatin is blocked, the muscles within an animal test subject are allowed to grow freely without being regulated to stop at a certain point within a certain time frame or interval.  This process is further heightened when it is considered that the presence of Myostatin inhibits the production of Akt, and therefore its ability to promote muscle hypertrophy.

Myostatin HMP and Muscle Growth

Because of the ability that Myostatin HMP has in terms of inhibiting the production of myostatin, scientific study that has been based on animal test subjects has determined that the peptide could play a key factor into accelerating muscle growth.  Because the regulatory processes that exist behind the presence of Myostatin, it is therorized that the presence of Myostatin HMP and its ability to inhibit myostatin can cause an increase in muscle growth and muscle size to happen on a more efficient basis.   Some studies have also theorized that the increase in muscle growth efficiency could have secondary benefits.  For example, it is thought that the acceleration of muscle tissue growth could conceivably cause acceleration in the breakdown of adipose tissue (that is, body fat).  The theory here is that the energy that is needed for muscle growth is turned into the muscular building blocks would be expended at a much faster rate.  As such, it leaves little time for adipose tissue to develop.   It would also cause any excess adipose tissue that had been built up over time to break down for purposes of energy conversion on a significantly faster rate, thus making it easier to break down any excess weight.

Click here to read Myostatin HMP – Part 2

Oxytocin – Part 2

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The Action of Oxytocin

Scientific study that has been conducted on animal test subjects has been able to link Oxytocin to other various complex bodily functions that are not necessarily linked to various emotional or arousal responses.

For example, studies have determined that the peptide has been linked to the letdown reflex in lactating female animal test subjects.  In essence, the letdown reflex serves to regulate the presence of milk within animals that are breastfeeding.  This action is stimulated by the suckling process, wherein the information that surrounds the process is relayed to the spinal nerves of the hypothalamus, which in turn trigger the peptide to fire action potentials in intermittent bursts for purposes of regulation.  Other studies have linked the peptide to uterine contraction, a critical function that allows cervical dilation before birth to occur.  It has been further determined that the peptide’s presence induces contractions within the second and third stages of labor, and has also been shown to aid the uterus in clotting the placental attachment point postpartum.

Some studies have theorized that the presence of Oxytocin is thought to have the capacity to modulate inflammation, which is the complex biological response of vascular tissues in reaction to harmful stimuli like irritants, pathogens, or damaged cells.  These studies have indicated that the presence of the peptide can work to decrease specific cytokines.  This has led to the notion that the presence of the peptide could conceivably be connected to the acceleration of wound healing.

Theorized Benefits of Oxytocin

Scientific study that has been based on animal test subjects has been able to derive a host of potential benefits that can be linked to the presence of Oxytocin.

One of the primary benefits that have been hypothetically linked to the peptide revolves around the process of labor induction.  Because the presence of Oxytocin has been shown to play a vital role in various physiological responses pertaining to the birthing process in animal test subjects, it is though t that it can be utilized to ease various aspects of birthing malfunction, up to and including the suppression of premature labor.

Another one of the theories that have been linked to the peptide is that it could conceivably regulate certain socially-induced behavioral actions, such as trust, generosity, fear, and anxiety.  The theory here is that because the peptide acts as a neuromodulator, its presence can allow for an increased control over transmissions that have been thought to invoke various behavioral responses.

Some scientific study that has been built around animal test subjects involves the theoretical linking of Oxytocin to the treatment of autism.  This theory is linked to the notion that the peptide’s presence could regulate behavior and the expressions of this behavior.  It is thought that Oxytocin could significantly improve upon aspects of various social maladies that are traditionally associated with the autism spectrum, such as the ability to read social cues correctly and memory retention in aspects specifically pertaining to social information.

Potential Side Effects of Oxytocin

While scientific study that has been built on animal test subjects has been able to derive a host of theoretical benefits associated with Oxytocin, there have been several potential negative side effects that have been associated with the peptide.

Some of the short-term side effects that have been associated with the peptide may include an increase in heart-rate, a decrease in blood pressure, cardiac arrhythmia, premature ventricular contraction, impaired uterine blood flow, nausea, and vomiting.  Some of the side effects that have been linked to the peptide through the course of long-term exposure include titanic uterine contractions, uterine rupture, postpartum hemorrhage, and water intoxication in female animal test subjects.

However, it has been determined through scientific study based on animal test subjects that oxytocin’s side effects are relatively uncommon in their nature.  Furthermore, these studies have indicated that the peptide is generally considered safe to use on animal test subjects if it is not administered over a period of 24 hours or longer.

Strictly for Controlled Environments

It should be noted that any findings or observations that relate to Oxytocin and its overall functionality should exclusively be done within a strictly controlled environment, such as a medical research facility or a laboratory.  The reason for this is due to the fact that the peptide and the study its operational is currently just fit for scientific study on animal test subjects.  As such, it should be noted that research that has been derived regarding Oxytocin is due to scientific tests conducted in a controlled environment only.

Click here to read Oxytocin – Part 1